2018-09-20

健全なP2Pネットワークの信用のためには全利用者の参加が必須であるという話

「Zaifが5966BTCやられたようだな」
「ククク、あれは後発取引所ゆえ保有量が最弱」
「85万BTCを溶かした余の足元にも及ばぬ」

また一つ暗号通貨の取引所が失敗した。人はいつになったら学ぶのだろうか。中央権威のないP2Pネットワーク上の信頼は、利用者全員が参加することでしか担保できぬと。

信じられないことに、暗号通貨の利用者の中でも、なぜ暗号通貨が信用できるか、というより暗号通貨の何を信用しているかを理解しているものは少ない。皆暗号通貨と日本円などの国家通貨の交換レートしか気にしていない。国家通貨との交換レートなど、暗号通貨の実現している技術的な価値に比べればチリほどの価値もない。暗号通貨の価値は、中央権威のない通信越しに偽造できない通貨の取引を実現したということにある。

問題を簡単にするために、暗号通貨とは違う例で考えよう。

アリスとボブが仕切りを隔てて音声による会話しかできない状況に置かれている。この状況で、アリスとボブはコイントスによる勝負をする。コイントスは投げたコインが表か裏のどちらを上にして落ちるかで勝敗が決まる。アリスが表で勝つのであれば、ボブは裏で勝つ。アリスが裏ならばボブは表で勝つ。

アリスとボブが賭ける表裏を音声による会話で選択したとして、一体どうやって信頼できるコイントスをすればいいのだろうか。アリスとボブのどちらか一方がコイントスをして結果を相手に伝える場合、音声による会話しかできないので、相手はコイントスの結果を信用できない。アリスとボブ以外に勝負の審判をしてくれる都合のいい第三者はいない。

実は、この状況でアリスとボブがどちらも信用できるコイントスを行うことは数学的に可能だ。

では問題を変えよう。ここに60億人の人間がいる。全員、音声による会話しかできない。60億人のうちのある一人のアリスが、ある一人のボブに自分の持っている通貨の支払いたい。支払った後のアリスは通貨を失い、ボブは通貨を得る。しかし全員音声による会話しかできないのに、どうやったらそんな取引が信用できるのだろうか。

これも、数学的に信用できる方法がある。bitcoinを始めとする暗号通貨が行っているのはこれだ。

信用を担保するには、60億人が全員同じ方法で数学的な計算を行い、不正がないことを確かめなければならない。もし、30億人と一人が不正のための計算に協力したならば、アリスが支払ったはずの通貨はアリスの手元に残り、ボブの手元には通貨がない常態にすることも可能だ。しかし、そのような参加者の過半数を超える大規模な計算は難しい。

ただし、この方法で信用できるのは、ある暗号通貨の取引だけだ。暗号通貨と日本円の取引とか、物の取引は暗号通貨の信用の範囲外だ。

残念ながら、世の中の暗号通貨利用者の大半はズボラで、自ら信用を担保することを考えていない。こういうマヌケ共は、自ら信用のための計算をせずに、取引所と呼ばれる他人に計算を任せる。本来ならば証明された数学と計算力を信用すればよいはずの暗号通貨を、他人の信用に置き換えてしまう。こうなるともはやその計算を任された取引所が権威となり、単一障害点になってしまう。その結果、取引所が失敗すると任せていた全員が失敗する。

人はいつ学ぶのだろうか。

そういえば、CloudflareがIPFSのゲートウェイを提供するという興味深いニュースがあったので、今はIPFSについて学んでいる。今学んだ限りでは、名前解決であるIPNSを除けば、IPFSが喧伝していることはBitTorrentプロトコルに対するフロントエンドで実装できそうで、あまり目新しい価値はないように思える。そして、Cloudflareのような大手がゲートウェイを提供し、皆が自前でフルノードを動かさずにゲートウェイに依存することで、健全なP2Pネットワークの信用が損なわれてしまうだろう。

44 comments:

Anonymous said...

経済学的に見て、仮想通貨が価値を持つのは他の物やサービスと交換可能であるからに過ぎない。
P2Pネットワーク内で数字を移動させられるからではない。

Anonymous said...

みんなもフルノード建てよう(提案)

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